|Entrance to the At Home with Monsters exhibition, AGO, Toronto|
|A representation of Olaus Worm's museum, Copenhagen |
(Musaeum Wormianum, 1655).
|DDT Efectos Especiales Phasma |
Gigos (Insect), 2006.
|Emilie Steele. Escape, 2016.|
With respect of del Toro’s chosen theme, in the strange world of the early modern cabinet of curiosities, monsters gained new significance, representing in an explicit way the category confusion created by a new, wide world of objects that defied traditional, received categories. A passage from Francis Bacon can set the stage for the place of monsters and other forms of aberration in the attempt, in the new, empirical mode of knowledge, to re-examine traditional taxonomies. Bacon was a collector of facts through observation. Voyages of discovery were, therefore, crucial to the new philosophy. For Bacon, “Distant voyages and travels have brought to light many things in nature, which throw fresh light on human philosophy and science and correct by experience the opinions and conjectures of the ancients” (Refutation, 131). The world on the edges of knowledge and experience was a place of possibility. Here, that which was encountered and could not be fit into the established models of the world were rendered marvelous; but at the same time, for those who, in the Baconian tradition, began with an assumption that the old, received paradigms needed to be exploded, to be replaced by new taxonomies built on observation, these category-defying objects were particularly interesting. For this reason, Bacon holds a special place for monsters, the “heteroclites and irregulars of nature,” which force us to reconsider neat ontological categories. In his Advancement of Learning, Bacon sets out three aspects to his proposed project of a new History of Nature: “of nature in course, of nature erring or varying, and of nature altered or wrought” (3.330). He advocates the need for “a substantial and severe collection of the Heteroclites or Irregularities of nature, well examined and described.” The benefit of such a collection is to “correct the partiality of axioms and opinions, which are commonly framed only upon common and familiar examples” and to learn form “the wonders of nature … the nearest intelligence and passage toward the wonder of art” (3.331). Deviations of nature hint at possibilities in human manipulation of nature. Now, to be clear, Bacon is talking about a collection in histories, that is, written accounts, but the same principals apply, presumably, to the collection and examination of the objects themselves.
Early modern collections clearly expressed this interest in hybridity, of variations from natural form, and even human manipulations of nature, a mixing of the natural and artificial:
• “A Monstrous Calf, with two Heads, and two Tayles, with a perfect Body” and “A Gyants Thigh bone 4 foot long” in Robert Hubert’s collection (1665).
• A “round horn which had grown on an English woman’s forehead” or “An embalmed child (Mumia)” in Sir Walter Cope’s collection (Platter, 172).
|Unknown. Anatomical Model of Conjoined Babies|
The famous prose writer and Norwich physician, Sir Thomas Browne, himself a collector of curiosities and an experimenter and expositor of nature in the Baconian tradition, goes beyond mere empirical interest to posit the beauty in the monster. In his Religio Medici (1642), Browne writes,
I hold there is a general beauty in the works of God, and therefore no deformity in any kind or species of creature whatsoever. … there is no deformity but in monstrosity, wherein notwithstanding there is a kind of beauty, Nature so ingeniously contriving the irregular parts, as they become sometimes more remarkable that the principal fabric. To speak yet more narrowly, there was never anything ugly, or misshapen, but the chaos; wherein notwithstanding to speak strictly, there was no deformity, because no form, nor was it yet impregnate by the voice of God. Now nature is not at variance with art, nor art with nature; they being both servants of providence (I.16).Here, perhaps, we come close to del Toro’s interest in monsters. Near the end of the exhibit, at a station titled "May the Monsters Follow you Home," del Toro elaborates his parting benediction: "Monsters speak to a very deep spiritual part of ourselves and the way we construct our place in the universe."
 Guillermo del Toro: At Home with Monsters. Art Gallery of Ontario, Sept. 30, 2017 – Jan. 7, 2018. https://ago.ca/exhibitions/guillermo-del-toro.
Bacon, Francis. The Philosophy of Francis Bacon: An Essay on Its Development from 1603 to 1609, with New Translations of Fundamental Texts. Edited and translated by Benjamin Farrington. [Liverpool]: Liverpool University Press, 1964.
Browne, Thomas. The Works of Sir Thomas Browne. Edited by Geoffrey Keynes. 6 vols. London: Faber & Faber, 1964.
-------. The Works of Francis Bacon. 7 vols. Edited by James Spedding, Robert Leslie Ellis, and Douglas Denon Heath. London: Longmans, 1870.
A Catalogue of Many Natural Rarities, with Great Industry, Cost, and thirty Years Travel in Foraign Countries. Collected by Robert Hubert, aliàs Forges, Gent. and sworn Servant to His Majesty. And daily to be seen, at the place formerly called the Musick House, near the West end of St. Pauls Church (1665). Edited by Brent Nelson. Digital Ark. http://drc.usask.ca/projects/ark/XML/Hub1665/.
. Thomas Platter's Travels in England 1599. Edited and translated and edited by Clare Williams. London: Jonathan Cape, 1937. Digital Ark. http://drc.usask.ca/projects/ark/XML/CopePlat/.
Worm, Ole, et al. Museum Wormianum: Seu Historia Rerum Rariorum, Tam Naturalium, Quam Artificialium, Tam Domesticarum, Quam Exoticarum, Quæ Hafniæ Danorum in Ædibus Authoris Servantur. Leiden and Amsterdam, 1655.